Custom LDAP schemas¶
debops.slapd role by default configures a set of custom LDAP schemas on
top of the default ones enabled during slapd installation. The
schemas included in a LDAP directory cannot be removed without issues,
therefore it's best to select the ones you want to use at the database
You can find more details about managing the LDAP schemas using
configuration in the Zytrax LDAP guide.
- General notes
- The initial LDAP schemas
slapd__*_schemas variables define a list of LDAP schemas to import by
the role. The list is not merged via custom Ansible filter plugins and is only
additive. You can define different sets of schemas on different Ansible
The schema files need to already be present on the remote host to be imported by the role. The default schemas included by the role are installed via APT packages, you can see the available set of schemas by running the command:
apt-cache search fusiondirectory plugin schema
The Debian/Ubuntu archive also contains a smaller set of APT packages for the
GOsa² application which contain LDAP schemas, however the
fusiondirectory-* packages conflict with each other.
You can use the debops.resources role to copy custom
*.ldif files to the remote host before importing them. The
can be imported automatically, but the
*.schema import relies on the
fusiondirectory-insert-schema command which is available in the
fusiondirectory-schema APT package.
If you are using clustered OpenLDAP, for example in N-Way Multi Master
replication mode, you should import the schemas only on one node at a time.
Execution of the import command on multiple remote hosts at once will result in
an error when one replication host already has a schema defined with a specific
X-ORDERED index number, but the other nodes don't. The schema will be
replicated automatically between all of the OpenLDAP masters.
The rfc2307bis LDAP schema is a proposed replacement of the RFC 2307
document that defines the
nis LDAP schema. Main improvement over the old
nis schema is the modified
posixGroup LDAP object, which in the new
schema has an
AUXILIARY type instead of the
STRUCTURAL type. Notably,
posixAccount LDAP object has an
AUXILIARY type in the original
nis scheme; the change makes both objects work similarly by allowing an
UNIX-based attributes to be combined with LDAP-based directory entries.
Without this change, LDAP directories that are used in UNIX-like environments
for group authentication require two sets of groups stored in the directory
- one for LDAP entities based on DN attributes, and another for UNIX entities
based on GID attributes. The new schema enables the
type to combine with other LDAP object types, namely
groupOfUniqueNames. This allows the two sets of data to be combined in
one object - allowing both the UID and DN attributes to be used as group
members. This of course depends on the client-side support - both
nslcd and sssd daemons should be able to use the combined
data sets correctly.
Some of the Linux-based distributions provide the slapd package with
rfc2307bis schema enabled by default. Unfortunately, Debian's
slapd APT package includes the original
nis schema which
conflicts with the new
rfc2307bis schema because both define the same LDAP
objects and their attributes. The
nis schema is loaded by default during
the slapd package installation and removing it from the already
initialized directory can be difficult.
Fortunately, there's a clean way to avoid this issue and enable the
rfc2307bis schema on slapd installation. The Debian Archive
contains two packages that provide it: fusiondirectory-schema and
gosa-schema. Both packages conflict with each other, therefore only one can
be installed at a time. In the
debops.slapd role, the
fusiondirectory-schema has been selected because FusionDirectory project
seems to be an actively maintained fork of GOsa² and will be more likely to be
selected for installation; another reason is more
fusiondirectory-plugin-*-schema APT packages available in Debian.
The role still works fine with
gosa-schema APT package installed, however
this will not be detected automatically; the user should redefine the
slapd__rfc2307bis_packages list the Ansible inventory to select this
Before the installation of the slapd APT package, the
debops.slapd role will install the
/etc/ldap/schema/nis.(ldif,schema) files aside using the
dpkg-divert tool and create a symlink to the
/etc/ldap/fusiondirectory/rfc2307bis.(ldif,schema) files in their
place. With this modification, when the slapd APT package is
installed, it will automatically include the modified
The automatic installation of the
rfc2307bis schema can be disabled by
slapd__rfc2307bis_enabled boolean variable to
This allows usage of the LDAP directories that use the old
without modifications to the directory contents.
During installation of the
slapd Debian package, the postinstall script
creates a new OpenLDAP configuration using the
/usr/share/slapd/slapd.init.ldif LDIF configuration file. The default
LDAP schemas imported at that time are:
nis.schema(replaced by the
You can find the schema files in the
/etc/ldap/schema/ directory on the
OpenLDAP server host.
This schema provides the basic LDAP object identifiers (OIDs) for other LDAP
schemas that are created by DebOps project - the Private Enterprise Number
assigned to the project by IANA and the separate namespace designated to be
used for LDAP schemas. These object identifiers are in a separate "schema" so
that they can be re-used in multiple LDAP schemas imported after this schema
without creating conflicts in the OpenLDAP
This is a custom LDAP schema maintained by DebOps. It can be found in the
ansible/roles/debops.slapd/files/etc/ldap/schema/debops/ directory of
the DebOps monorepo.
rfc2307bis schema fixes one issue with POSIX groups in LDAP - the
posixGroup object attributes can be added to any object type. But there's
one other problem not fixed by this schema - the name of the group is taken
cn attribute. This causes an issue when LDAP group names are in
a human-readable form, instead of a short string form preferred in POSIX
environments, for example:
UNIX Administrators vs
Another issue shows up with different User Private Group implementations in
LDAP - because the
cn attribute in the LDAP objects that define people is
used for the person's full name, for example "John Smith", personal UNIX groups
cannot be defined in the same LDAP object, even though the
attribute is required by the
posixAccount object type.
There are different solutions to this problem - create a separate
posixGroup object for each person and put it either in a separate directory
subtree, or as a child entry of the person's object, but these solutions are
cumbersome and require hard to implement ACL rules. A different solution is
adding a new attribute that would define the UNIX group name separate from the
This is what the
posixgroupid.schema LDAP schema does - it adds the
groupid attribute, either in a separate
type, or in the
posixGroupId object which is a subclass of the
posixGroup object. With the
gid attribute, LDAP clients that are
configured to use it, can use a different LDAP attribute as the UNIX group name
instead of the human-readable
cn name. Similarly, LDAP objects that
represent people can have a
gid attribute that contains the name of the
Private User Group, usually the same as the
uid attribute. This requires
that the LDAP clients look for the
gid attribute instead of the
attribute as the UNIX group name, but it's usually a simple configuration
nexuidgid schema defines a set of simple LDAP objects (
gidNext), which can be used to store
values, respectively. These objects are used in DebOps to keep track of
the next available UID/GID values, but can be used
for other purposes, for example to split the UID/GID range used in the LDAP
directory into subranges.
orgstructure schema defines an additional LDAP object,
organizationalStructure. This object is meant to replace the use of the
organizationalUnit object class in the base LDAP directory entries, such as
ou=Groups, and so on. The new object contains attributes
selected to help manage the access control for specific
LDAP directory subtrees.
ppolicy schema provides LDAP object and attribute definitions required
by the Password Policy overlay.
ldapns schema provides a set of LDAP objects and attributes that can be
used for granular access control to services and hosts that use the LDAP
host attribute can be used to define a list of FQDN names,
or hostnames to which a given user or application has access. The
authorizedService attribute can contain a list of services accessible to an
user or application. LDAP clients can use these attributes in LDAP filters to
grant access only to specific people or applications.
groupofentries schema defines a new "groupOfEntries" LDAP Object
Class which is meant to replace the
groupOfNames object defined by
RFC 2256. The new object can be used to create groups that can be empty (no
member attribute required).
openssh-lpk schema allows the LDAP directory to hold SSH public keys,
which combined with OpenSSH
AuthorizedKeysCommand configuration can allow
SSH authentication via LDAP directory. An example openssh-ldap-publickey
script shows how this can be configured with OpenSSH and OpenLDAP.
The debops.slapd Ansible role contains a modified version of the official schema which adds a separate attribute for the public key fingerprints, meant to help find the key owners based on the information logged by the sshd service.
The debops.sshd Ansible role already contains support for SSH public key lookup in OpenLDAP, see its documentation for more details about enabling the support.
The sudo service can be configured to use LDAP directory as a backend for its rules. The debops.sudo Ansible role will enable the LDAP support when the debops.ldap configuration is detected (not implemented yet).
The rules in the LDAP directory are meant to be used with LDAP-based users and
groups; local accounts should still rely on local
to ensure service availability in case of an issue with connection to the LDAP
Manual pages: sudoers.ldap(5)
eduOrg are Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
(LDAP) schema designed to include widely-used person and organizational
attributes in higher education. The
eduPerson object class provides
a common list of attributes and definitions, drawing on the existing standards
in higher education. The schema were developed by the Internet2 project and
are commonly used in academic institutions.
The schema is available in Debian in the
fusiondirectory-plugin-supann-schema APT package, however that version is
slightly outdated and does not include object and attribute descriptions.
Because of that, DebOps contains its own copy of the schema, cleaned up and
updated, which will be imported by default to OpenLDAP directory server.
The version of the schema included in DebOps has been extended with additional
attributes for the
eduOrg Object Classes not present in
the official specification. These attributes have been found useful in an
academic environment; more attributes might be added in the future if needed.
nextcloud schema provides a set of LDAP objectClasses and attributes
that can be used to control LDAP integration with Nextcloud application. Using these attributes, administrators can
define disk quotas for Nextcloud users stored in the LDAP directory, as well as
define which user groups present in LDAP are available in the Nextcloud user
mailservice schema is based on several draft RFCs and includes a set of
LDAP objects and attributes useful for mail services. The
object class provides attributes for "final destination" mail recipient
accounts, like mail aliases, Sieve filtering rules, mail storage location,
mailDistributionList object class allows for creation of simple
mailing lists or distribution lists which can be used to distribute e-mail
messages to multiple recipients with basic access controls.
With this schema installed, the
dyngroup schema provides LDAP object and attribute definitions for
creation of dynamic groups inside of the LDAP directory. Dynamic group
objects define LDAP search URLs which are resolved by the directory server on
searches and provided to the client with computed set of
as opposed to having a static object with members.
In DebOps, this schema is modified by adding the optional
to the group objects to support usage of the
AutoGroup overlay which maintains "static" dynamic groups by
updating these objects each time an LDAP entry included in the specified search
is created, modified or destroyed.
freeradius schema provide definitions of various LDAP objects usable by
the FreeRADIUS service, namely RADIUS Clients, RADIUS Profiles, RADIUS
Accounting database objects, and FreeRADIUS DHCPv4/DHCPv6 configuration
objects. The version of the schema included in DebOps is based on the
master branch of the FreeRADIUS project code.
Keep in mind that the FreeRADIUS schema is split into multiple
freeradius-*.schema files, and the main file defines just the
objectIdentifier LDAP objects used in other schema files. If you don't want
to use specific FreeRADIUS features you should be able to disable them by
changing the list of LDAP schemas the role loads, but the
freeradius.schema file should be always present.