Using Linux containers¶
- Host requirements
- Configuring a host to make it capable of storing containers
- LXC cheatsheet to help you manage the containers
- Interacting with a container
Your host must be Debian based.
Debian stable and oldstable are supported by DebOps, as well as the two latest LTS releases of Ubuntu. However the main focus will always be towards the latest Debian Stable followed by the latest Ubuntu LTS release. So if you plan on setting up a new machine, always use the latest OS release.
If you're using a Mac or a different Linux distro then you'll want to setup a virtual machine to act as the container host. You can do this with Vagrant or some other virtualization software.
SSH key pair
You will also need an SSH key pair on your host. You probably have one setup,
but if you don’t, you can run
ssh-keygen -t and follow the instructions.
DebOps expects the SSH keys to be in
Configuring a host¶
Adding it to your inventory
The paths are relative to where you
debops-init a new project.
Decide on which network adapter you're using
If you plan to make your main OS an LXC host then you'll want to configure the host to use the NAT adapter by default. DNS is configured through NAT using dnsmasq.
Basically this means you don't have to forward ports and DNS will work.
If you plan to use the bridged adapter through a VM then you do not have to set anything but keep in mind you will need to connect through an IP address unless you have configured DNS yourself.
Make the host an LXC host by running DebOps
Run this from your terminal:
debops -l debops_service_lxc.
If you are running Debian Wheezy you will have to reboot your LXC host due to a kernel update. Later Debian releases and all supported Ubuntu releases do not require a reboot.
# Create a new container sudo lxc-create -n mycontainer -t debops # Return back a list of containers and basic information about them sudo lxc-ls -f # Start a container, the -d flag runs it as a daemon sudo lxc-start -n mycontainer -d # Stop a container sudo lxc-stop -n mycontainer # Destroy a container, the -f flag does a stop before destroying it sudo lxc-destroy -n mycontainer -f # There are many more commands like snapshotting, freezing, info, etc. # Check the LXC manpages for more information sudo lxc-[tab complete]
Interacting with a container¶
Once it has been created and it's running you can SSH to it, just run:
ssh containername if you have DNS setup, otherwise use the IP address. At
this point you have a bare container ready to do whatever you want.
Setting it up with common DebOps services
If you plan to use containers for development then you'll probably want to group your containers together in your inventory.
Now you could create
start doing things that would apply to all local containers.
Perhaps you want to install emacs or use your own dotfiles, etc..
To transfer files to/from the container you have 2 options.
- SCP or some other file transfer utility that works through SSH
# To the container scp somefile mycontainer:/tmp/somefile # From a container scp mycontainer:/tmp/somefile somefile
The second option requires knowing the dirty details about where the container has its configuration and file system stored.
On the LXC host, navigate to
/var/lib/lxc, then go into your container's
directory. You can find its file system there among other things. You can simply
cp directly if your LXC host is local to your main OS.