This project adheres to Semantic Versioning and human-readable changelog.

This file contains only general overview of the changes in the DebOps project. The detailed changelog can be seen using git log command.

You can read information about required changes between releases in the Upgrade notes documentation.

debops master - unreleased

debops v0.8.0 - 2018-08-06


  • New DebOps roles:
    • debops.netbase: manage local host and network database in /etc/hosts and /etc/networks files.
    • debops.sudo: install and manage sudo configuration on a host. The role is included in the common.yml playbook.
    • debops.system_groups: configure UNIX system groups used on DebOps hosts. The role is included in the common.yml playbook.
    • debops.debops_legacy: clean up legacy files, directories, APT packages or dpkg-divert diversions created by DebOps but no longer used. This role needs to be executed manually, it's not included in the main playbook.
    • debops.python: manage Python environment, with support for multiple Python versions used at the same time. The role is included in the common.yml playbook.
    • Icinga 2 support has been implemented with debops.icinga, debops.icinga_db and debops.icinga_web Ansible roles.
  • [debops.users] Selected UNIX accounts can now be configured to linger when not logged in via the item.linger parameter. This allows these accounts to maintain long-running services when not logged in via their own private systemd instances.
  • [debops.sudo] You can now manage configuration files located in the /etc/sudoers.d/ directory using sudo__*_sudoers inventory variables, with multiple level of conditional options.
  • [debops.ntp] The OpenNTPD service will now properly integrate the ifupdown hook script with systemd. During boot, NTP daemon will be started once network interfaces are configured and will not restart multiple times on each network interface change.
  • [debops.resources] The role can now generate custom files using templates, based on a directory structure. See resources__templates for more details.
  • [debops.nginx] A default set of SSL ciphers can be specified using the nginx_default_ssl_ciphers variable. This disables the ssl_ciphers option in the nginx configuration and forces the server to use the defaults provided by the OS.
  • [debops.dhparam] The role will set up a systemd timer to regenerate Diffie-Hellman parameters periodically if it's available. The timer will use random delay time, up to 12h, to help with mass DHparam generation in multiple LXC containers/VMs.
  • The DebOps installation now depends on the dnspython Python library. This allows usage of the dig Ansible lookup plugin in DebOps roles to gather data via DNS SRV records.
  • The DebOps installation now depends on the future Python library which provides compatibility between Python 2.7 and Python 3.x environments. It is currently used in the custom Ansible filter plugin provided by DebOps, but its use will be extended to other scripts in the future to make the code more readable.


  • The editor alternative symlink configuration has been moved from the debops.console role to the debops.apt_install role which also installs vim by default.
  • The configuration of automatic removal of APT packages installed via Recommends: or Suggests: dependencies has been moved from the debops.apt role to the debops.apt_mark role which more closely reflects its intended purpose. Variable names and their default values changed; see the Upgrade notes for more details.
  • [debops.owncloud] Support Nextcloud 13 and partially ownCloud 10. Nextcloud 11 and ownCloud 9.1 are EOL, you should update. The role can help you with the update to ensure that everything works smoothly with the new versions. Currently, the role can not do the update for you.
  • [debops.sshd] The role will now check the debops.system_groups Ansible local facts to define what UNIX groups are allowed to connect to the host via the SSH service.
  • [debops.nodejs] The NPM version installed by the role from GitHub is changed from v5.4.2 to latest which seems to be an equivalent of a stable branch.
  • Some of the existing DebOps Policies and Guidelines have been reorganized and the concept of DebOps Enhancement Proposals (DEPs) is introduced, inspired by the Python Enhancement Proposals.
  • [debops.ifupdown] The debops.kmod role is added as a dependency. The debops.ifupdown role will generate modprobe configuration based on the type of configured network interfaces (bridges, VLANs, bonding) and the kernel modules will be automatically loaded if missing.

  • [debops.nodejs] Recent versions of NPM require NodeJS 6.0.0+ and don't work with other releases. Because of that the newest NPM release is not installable on hosts that use NodeJS packages from older OS releases.

    The 'debops.nodejs' role will install NPM v5.10.0 version in this case to allow NPM to work correctly - on Debian Jessie, Stretch and Ubuntu Xenial. Otherwise, a NPM from the latest branch will be installed, as before.

  • [debops.nodejs] Instead of NodeJS 6.x release, the role will now install NodeJS 8.x release upstream APT packages by default. This is due to the NodeJS 6.x release switching to a Maintenance LTS mode. NodeJS 8.x will be supported as a LTS release until April 2019.

  • [debops.nodejs] The role will install upstream NodeSource APT packages by default. This is due to no security support in Debian Stable, therefore an upstream packages should be considered more secure. The upstream NodeJS packages include a compatible NPM release, therefore it won't be separately installed from GitHub.

    The existing installations shouldn't be affected, since the role will select OS/upstream package versions based on existing Ansible local facts.

  • [debops.gitlab] Redesign the GitLab version management to read the versions of various components from the GitLab repository files instead of managing them manually in a YAML dictionary. The new gitlab__release variable is used to specify desired GitLab version to install/manage.

  • [debops.gitlab] The gitaly service will be installed using the git UNIX account instead of root. Existing installations might require additional manual cleanup; see the Upgrade notes for details.

  • [debops.gitlab] The role now supports installation of GitLab 10.7.

  • [debops.gitlab] The usage of gitlab__fqdn variable is revamped a bit - it's now used as the main variable that defines the GitLab installation FQDN. You might need to update the Ansible inventory if you changed the value of the gitlab_domain variable used previously for this purpose.

  • [debops.lxc] Redesign system-wide LXC configuration to use list of YAML dictionaries merged together instead of custom Jinja templates.

  • [debops.lxc] Add lxc-prepare-ssh script on the LXC hosts that can be used to install OpenSSH and add the user's SSH authorized keys inside of the LXC containers. This is a new way to prepare the LXC containers for Ansible/DebOps management that doesn't require custom LXC template scripts and can be used with different LXC container types.

  • [debops.core] The role will add any new administrator accounts to the list of existing admin accounts instead of replacing them in the Ansible local fact script. This should allow for multiple administrators to easily coexist and run the DebOps playbooks/roles from their own accounts without issues.

  • [debops.mariadb_server] [debops.mariadb] The MariaDB/MySQL server and client will now use the utf8mb4 encoding by default instead of the utf8 which is an internal MySQL character encoding. This might impact existing databases, see the Upgrade notes for details.

  • [debops.unattended_upgrades] On hosts without a domain set, the role enabled all upgrades, not just security updates. This will not happen anymore, the security updates are enabled everywhere by default, you need to enable all upgrades specifically via the unattended_upgrades__release variable.

  • The debops script can now parse multiple playbook names specified in any order instead of just looking at the first argument passed to it.


  • [debops.apt_install], [debops.auth]: don't install the sudo package by default, this is now done via a separate debops.sudo role to easily support switching to the sudo-ldap APT package.
  • [debops.console] Remove support for copying custom files from the role. This functionality is covered better by the debops.resources role.
  • [debops.console] Remove support for managing entries in the /etc/hosts database. This is now covered by the debops.netbase Ansible role.
  • [debops.auth] Remove configuration of UNIX system groups and accounts in the admins UNIX group. This is now done by the debops.system_groups Ansible role.
  • [debops.bootstrap] The sudo configuration has been removed from the debops.bootstrap role. The bootstrap.yml playbook now includes the debops.sudo role which configures sudo service.
  • [debops.bootstrap] The UNIX system group management has been removed from the role, the bootstrap.yml playbook now uses the debops.system_groups role to create the UNIX groups used by DebOps during bootstrapping.
  • [debops.bootstrap] Remove management of Python packages from the role. The bootstrap.yml playbook uses the debops.python role to configure Python support on the host.
  • [debops.lxc] Remove support for direct LXC container management from the role. This functionality is better suited for other tools like lxc-* set of commands, or the Ansible lxc_container module which should be used in custom playbooks. The 'debops.lxc' role focus should be configuration of LXC support on a host.
  • [debops.lxc] Remove custom LXC template support. The LXC containers can be created by the normal templates provided by the lxc package, and then configured using DebOps roles as usual.
  • [debops.postgresql_server] The tasks that modified the default template1 database and its schema have been removed to make the PostgreSQL installation more compatible with applications packaged in Debian that rely on the PostgreSQL service. See the relevant commit for more details. Existing installations shouldn't be affected.

debops v0.7.2 - 2018-03-28


  • Add missing python-ldap dependency as an APT package in the Dockerfile.

debops v0.7.1 - 2018-03-28


  • New DebOps roles:
    • debops.ansible: install Ansible on a Debian/Ubuntu host using Ansible. The debops.debops role now uses the new role to install Ansible instead of doing it directly.
    • debops.apt_mark: set install state of APT packages (manual/auto) or specify that particular packages should be held in their current state. The role is included in the common.yml playbook.
    • debops.kmod: manage kernel module configuration and module loading at boot time. This role replaces the debops-contrib.kernel_module role.
    • The debops-contrib.etckeeper role has been integrated into DebOps as debops.etckeeper. The new role is included in the common.yml playbook.
  • [debops.ifupdown] The role has new tasks that manage custom hooks in other services. First hook is The filter-dhcp-options hook which can be used to selectively apply DHCP options per network interface.


  • [debops.lxc] The role will now generate the lxc-debops LXC template script from different templates, based on an OS release. This change should help fix the issues with LXC container creation on Debian Stretch.
  • The test suite used on Travis-CI now checks the syntax of the YAML files, as well as Python and shell scripts included in the repository. The syntax is checked using the yamllint, pycodestyle and shellcheck scripts, respectively. Tests can also be invoked separately via the make command.
  • [debops.etherpad] The role can now autodetect and use a PostgreSQL database as a backend database for Etherpad.
  • [debops.pki] The X.509 certificate included in the default domain PKI realm will now have a SubjectAltName wildcard entry for the host's FQDN. This should allow for easy usage of services related to a particular host in the cluster over encrypted connections, for example host monitoring, service discovery, etc. which can be now published in the DNS zone at * resource records.
  • [debops.pki] The role now supports Let's Encrypt ACMEv2 API via the acme-tiny Python script. The existing PKI realms will need to be re-created or updated for the new API to work, new PKI realms should work out of the box. Check the Upgrade notes for more details.
  • [debops.proc_hidepid], [debops.lxc] The roles now use a static GID 70 for the procadmins group to synchronize the access permissions on a host and inside the LXC containers. You will need to remount the filesystems, restart services and LXC containers that rely on this functionality.
  • [debops.sysctl] The configuration of the kernel parameters has been redesigned, instead of being based on YAML dictionaries, is now based on YAML lists of dictionaries and can be easily changed via Ansible inventory. You will need to update your inventory for the new changes to take effect, refer to the role documentation for details.
  • [debops.ferm] The role should now correctly detect what Internet Protocols are available on a host (IPv4, IPv6) and configure firewall only for the protocols that are present.


  • The debops command will now generate the ansible.cfg configuration file with correct path to the Ansible roles provided with the DebOps Python package.
  • [debops.nginx] Fix a long standing bug in the role with Ansible failing during welcome page template generation with Jinja2 >= 2.9.4. It was related to non-backwards compatible change in Jinja that modified how variables are processed in a loop.


  • The debops-contrib.kernel_module Ansible role has been removed; it was replaced by the new debops.kmod Ansible role.
  • [debops.ferm] The ferm-forward hook script in the /etc/network/if-pre-up.d/ directory has been removed (existing instances will be cleaned up). Recent changes in the debops.ferm role broke idempotency with the debops.ifupdown role, and it was determined that the functionality provided by the hook is no longer needed, recent OS releases should deal with it adequately.

debops v0.7.0 - 2018-02-11


  • New Ansible roles have been imported from the debops-contrib organization: apparmor, bitcoind, btrfs, dropbear_initramfs, etckeeper, firejail, foodsoft, fuse, homeassistant, kernel_module, kodi, neurodebian, snapshot_snapper, tor, volkszaehler, x2go_server. They are not yet included in the main playbook and still need to be renamed to fit with the rest of the debops.* roles.

  • New DebOps roles:

    • debops.sysfs: configuration of the Linux kernel attributes through the /sys filesystem. The role is not enabled by default.
    • debops.locales: configure localization and internationalization on a given host or set of hosts.
    • debops.machine: manage the /etc/machine-info file, the /etc/issue file and a dynamic MOTD.
    • debops.proc_hidepid: configure the /proc hidepid= options.
    • debops.roundcube: manage RoundCube Webmail application
    • debops.prosody: configure an xmpp server on a given host
    • debops.sysnews: manage System News bulletin for UNIX accounts
  • You can now use Vagrant to create an Ansible Controller based on Debian Stretch and use it to manage itself or other hosts over the network.

  • You can now build an Ansible Controller with DebOps support as a Docker container. Official Docker image is also available, automatically rebuilt on every commit.

  • You can now install DebOps on Arch Linux using an included PKGBUILD file.

  • Add new playbook, agent.yml. This playbook is executed at the end of the main playbook, and contains applications or services which act as "agents" of other services. They may contact their parent applications to report about the state of the host they are executed on, therefore the agents are installed and configured at the end of the main playbook.

  • [debops.libvirtd] The role can now detect if nested KVM is enabled in a particular virtual machine and install KVM support.

    [debops.nodejs] The debops.nodejs role can now install Yarn package manager using its upstream APT repository (not enabled by default).

  • DebOps roles and playbooks can now be tested using local or remote GitLab CI instance, with Vagrant, KVM and LXC technologies and some custom scripts.

  • DebOps roles and playbooks will be included in the Python packages released on PyPI. This will allow for easier installation of DebOps via pip (no need to download the roles and playbooks separately) as well as simple stable releases. The DebOps monorepo can still be installed separately.


  • [debops-tools] The debops-update script will now install or update the DebOps monorepo instead of separate debops-playbooks and DebOps roles git repositories. Existing installations shouldn't be affected.

  • [debops-tools] The debops script will now include the DebOps monorepo roles and playbooks in the generated ansible.cfg configuration. The monorepo roles and playbooks are preferred over the old debops-playbooks ones.

    The script is backwards compatible and should work correctly with or without the debops-playbooks repository and roles installed.

  • The project repository is tested using pycodestyle for compliance with Python's PEP8 Style Guide.

  • [debops.nodejs] The npm package has been removed from Debian Stable. The role will now install NPM using the GitHub source, unless upstream NodeJS is enabled, which includes its own NPM version.

  • [debops.gunicorn] Update the role to work correctly on Debian Stretch and newer releases. The support for multiple gunicorn instances using custom Debian scripts has been removed in Debian Stretch, therefore the role replaces it with its own setup based on systemd instances.

  • [debops.gitlab_runner] The GitLab Runner playbook is moved to the agent.yml playbook; it will be executed at the end of the main playbook and should that way include correct information about installed services.

  • Improved Python 3 support in the DebOps scripts and throughout the playbooks/roles. DebOps should now be compatible with both Python versions.


  • [DebOps playbooks] Remove the Ansible filter plugin, it is now included in the Ansible core distribution.
  • [debops.console] Remove the locales configuration from the 'debops.console' role, this functionality has been moved to the new 'debops.locales' role. You will need to update the Ansible inventory variables to reflect the changes.
  • [debops.console] Remove management of the /etc/issue and /etc/motd files from the debops.console role. That functionality is now available in the debops.machine role. You will need to update the Ansible inventory variables to reflect the changes.
  • [debops.console] Management of the /proc hidepid= option has been moved to a new role, debops.proc_hidepid. You will need to update the Ansible inventory variables to reflect the changes.
  • [debops.console] Management of the System News using the sysnews Debian package has been removed from the role; it's now available as a separate debops.sysnews Ansible role. You will need to update the Ansible inventory variables related to System News due to this changes.

debops v0.6.0 - 2017-10-21


  • Various repositories that comprise the DebOps project have been merged into a single monorepo which will be used as the main development repository. Check the git log for information about older releases of DebOps roles and/or playbooks.